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-Type 1 (needing insulin at the time of diagnosis)
-Frequent urination
-Unusual thirst
-Extreme hunger
-Unusual weight loss
-Extreme fatigue and irritability

-Type 2 (does not need insulin at the time of diagnosis)

-Any of the type 1 symptoms
-Frequent infections
-Blurred visionCuts/bruises that are slow to heal
-Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet
-Recurring skin, gum or bladder infections
-Often people with type 2 diabetes have
no symptoms
-Accounts for 8% of all legal blindness
-Leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US
-Diabetics are twice as likely as non-diabetics to
develop cardiovascular (heart and circulatory) disease
-57 million people in the US have Pre-diabetes
-You have Pre-diabetes if your hemoglobin
A1C ≥ 5.7% - < 6.4%
-Diabetics have a hemoglobin A1C >6.4%

-The onset of Type 2 diabetes can be prevented
 or delayed by:
-Making changes in diet
-Increasing level of physical exercise
-Type 2 diabetes can be managed by:
-15-25 calories per pound of body weight depending on exercise level
-45-65% carbohydrates
-<30% fat
-10-30% protein
-Daily cholesterol should not exceed 300 mg
-20-30 grams of fiber
-Restrict sodium intake 2400-3000 mg per day
-Moderation in alcohol intake (≤ 2 drinks/day for men; ≤1 drink/day for women)
- Exercise
-Build up slowly
-Goal activity level: 30-40 minutes of exercise 3-5 days/week
-Goal weight:
-Ideal body weight
-Monitor glucose levels3-4 times per day if on insulin (finger stick)
-Perform A1C at least twice per year if maintaining glucose control;
quarterly glucose monitoring if changing
treatment or not maintaining glucose control

-A1C goal: <7%


2011 Ferri’s Clinical Advisor

American Diabetes Association: